Model based control optimisation of renewable energy based HVAC Systems.
During the last 10 years solar cooling systems attracted more and more interest not only in the research area but also on a private and commercial level. Several demonstration plants have been installed in different European countries and first companies started to commercialise also small scale absorption cooling machines. However, not all of the installed systems operate efficiently and some are, from the primary energy point of view, even worse than conventional systems with a compression chiller. The main reason for this is a poor system design combined with suboptimal control. Often several non optimised components, each separately controlled, are put together to form a ‘cooling system’. To overcome these drawbacks several attempts are made within IEA task 38 (International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme) to improve the system design through optimised design guidelines which are supported by simulation based design tools. Furthermore, guidelines for an optimised control of different systems are developed. In parallel several companies like the SolarNext AG in Rimsting, Germany started the development of solar cooling kits with optimised components and optimised system controllers. To support this process the following contributions are made within the present work: - For the design and dimensioning of solar driven absorption cooling systems a detailed and structured simulation based analysis highlights the main influencing factors on the required solar system size to reach a defined solar fraction on the overall heating energy demand of the chiller. These results offer useful guidelines for an energy and cost efficient system design. - Detailed system simulations of an installed solar cooling system focus on the influence of the system configuration, control strategy and system component control on the overall primary energy efficiency. From the results found a detailed set of clear recommendations for highly energy efficient system configurations and control of solar driven absorption cooling systems is provided. - For optimised control of open desiccant evaporative cooling systems (DEC) an innovative model based system controller is developed and presented. This controller consists of an electricity optimised sequence controller which is assisted by a primary energy optimisation tool. The optimisation tool is based on simplified simulation models and is intended to be operated as an online tool which evaluates continuously the optimum operation mode of the DEC system to ensure high primary energy efficiency of the system. Tests of the controller in the simulation environment showed that compared to a system with energy optimised standard control the innovative model based system controller can further improve the primary energy efficiency by 19 %.
- PhD