Advanced engineering of Fibrous Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) films for buccal application using Electrohydrodynamic Atomisation
The development of therapeutic dosage (e.g. pharmaceutical) systems is an ongoing process which, in recent times has incorporated several emerging disciplines and themes at timely intervals. While the concepts surrounding dosages have developed and evolved, many polymeric excipients remain as the preferred choice of materials over existing counterparts, serving functions as matrix materials, coatings and providing other specific functional properties (e.g. adhesion, controlled release and mechanical properties). Therefore, polymer is employed as a matrix carrier of materials or as active release performance modulating agents for polymeric based dosages. There have been, however, developments in the deployment of synthetic polymeric materials (e.g. polycaprolactone, poly lactic co-glycolic acid) when compared to naturally occurring materials (e.g. lactose, gelatin). Additionally, numerous techniques have been advanced further to novel engineering polymeric structures which provide materials in micrometer to nanometer scale range. Some of these structures enabling technologies include spray drying, super critical processing, microfluidics and even wet chemical methods. Recently maturing processes which is operational at the ambient environment is electrohydrodynamic (EHDA) engineering methods (ES and ESy). They have emerged as robust technologies offering potential to fabricate a plethora of generic structures directly into a fibrous polymer matrix system (e.g. particles, fibres, bubbles and pre-determined patterns) on a broad scale range. This research focuses on key developments using EHDA technology for the pharmaceutical and biomaterial remits when selecting synthetic and/or naturally occurring polymers as pharmaceutical (and therapeutic) excipients. EHDA was employed to engineer NSAID drugs in fibre film form for buccal delivery. EHDA was selected to develop fibre film of Indomethacin, Diclofenac Sodium, Ketoprofen, and Piroxicam in cooperation of PVP, Ethocel, Methocel, HPMC, and Tween 80. Morphology of electrospun films were analyzed by SEM and further characterized using DSC, TGA, FTIR, Raman and XRD. DSC and XRD demonstrated NSAID drugs change from crystalline to amorphous state. FTIR and Raman data suggest NSAID, PVP and co-polymers (Methocel™ E5, Methocel™ E15 Ethocel™ E10, HMPC and Tween® 80) were integrated in stable fashion into filamentous structures via ES. The release behaviour from several matrixes that was observed suggesting a potential route to modify drug release based on polymeric excipients. Therefore, identifying co-polymers in matrix and their effect in vitro release was the main core of chapter 3. Based on the results (fast or slow release), the co-polymer was incorporated with several NSAID drugs. However, each NSAID drugs show different release behaviour with same co-polymer. In addition, the underlying EHDA process principles are discussed along with key parameters and variables (both materials and engineering). EHDA technologies are operational at ambient conditions and recent developments have also demonstrated their viability for large scale production. These are promising technologies which have potential in established (e.g. films, dressings and microparticles) and emerging scientific themes (e.g. nanomedicines and tissue engineering). Moreover, EHDA a one-step process facilitates us to optimise dosage forms as desirable in a single step for several age groups. The use of EHDA need to be more explored within the buccal research concern. It has shown great potential in this research concept; therefore, it is viable to pursue to wider area in this field.
- PhD