Unconstrained Road Sign Recognition
There are many types of road signs, each of which carries a different meaning and function: some signs regulate traffic, others indicate the state of the road or guide and warn drivers and pedestrians. Existent image-based road sign recognition systems work well under ideal conditions, but experience problems when the lighting conditions are poor or the signs are partially occluded. The aim of this research is to propose techniques to recognize road signs in a real outdoor environment, especially to deal with poor lighting and partially occluded road signs. To achieve this, hybrid segmentation and classification algorithms are proposed. In the first part of the thesis, we propose a hybrid dynamic threshold colour segmentation algorithm based on histogram analysis. A dynamic threshold is very important in road sign segmentation, since road sign colours may change throughout the day due to environmental conditions. In the second part, we propose a geometrical shape symmetry detection and reconstruction algorithm to detect and reconstruct the shape of the sign when it is partially occluded. This algorithm is robust to scale changes and rotations. The last part of this thesis deals with feature extraction and classification. We propose a hybrid feature vector based on histograms of oriented gradients, local binary patterns, and the scale-invariant feature transform. This vector is fed into a classifier that combines a Support Vector Machine (SVM) using a Random Forest and a hybrid SVM k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN) classifier. The overall method proposed in this thesis shows a high accuracy rate of 99.4% in ideal conditions, 98.6% in noisy and fading conditions, 98.4% in poor lighting conditions, and 92.5% for partially occluded road signs on the GRAMUAH traffic signs dataset.
- PhD