Health Effects and Risks of Caffeine, Theobromine and Theophylline

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dc.contributor.author Pena-Fernandez, A. en
dc.contributor.author Evans, M. D. en
dc.contributor.author Bhambra, Avninder S. en
dc.date.accessioned 2017-07-18T15:24:14Z
dc.date.available 2017-07-18T15:24:14Z
dc.date.issued 2017-05-25
dc.identifier.citation Peña-Fernández, A., Evans, M. D. and Bhambra, A. S (2017) Health effects and risks of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. In: Frontiers in Bioactive Compounds: At the Crossroads Between Nutrition and Pharmacology. pp. 357-382 (26) en
dc.identifier.isbn 9781681084305
dc.identifier.issn 2468-6409
dc.identifier.issn 2468-6395
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2086/14315
dc.description.abstract Methylxanthines, namely caffeine, theobromine and theophylline are found in several beverages and food products such as coffee, cocoa, tea and cola drinks. These substances can provide benefits to humans but also prove harmful mainly when consumed in high amounts. However, the beneficial and deleterious effects of methylxanthines are controversial in research findings, largely because of inconsistencies within research conducted and factors associated within studies. For instance, some authors have reported methylxanthines could have potential antioxidant activity under physiological conditions but opposing studies do not support these claims. Factors that influence the effects of methylxanthines include age, gender and health status of the individual. In addition to these, other factors such as doses, consumption of drugs or pharmaceuticals, alcohol and tobacco habits and diet also play a role in methylxanthine effects and metabolism. Therefore, our review is to provide a clearer understanding of the beneficial/adverse effects of methylxanthines in humans. A description of the physiological and toxicological effects of these methylxanthines is provided. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Bentham Science en
dc.subject Bioactive compounds en
dc.subject Caffeine en
dc.subject Human health and risks en
dc.subject Methylxanthines en
dc.subject Theobromine en
dc.subject Theophylline en
dc.title Health Effects and Risks of Caffeine, Theobromine and Theophylline en
dc.type Book chapter en
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.2174/97816810842991170201
dc.researchgroup Biomedical and Environmental Health en
dc.peerreviewed Yes en
dc.funder N/A en
dc.projectid N/A en
dc.cclicence N/A en
dc.date.acceptance 2017-05-01 en


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