Dynamic Analysis of the impact of Capital Structure on Firm Performance in Nigeria
The thesis examines the dynamic impact of capital structure on firm performance in Nigeria. The aims of this thesis are; first, to investigate the impact of capital structure of firms on their performance in a dynamic framework. This is unlike previous studies in the capital structure literature that have used static analysis. Second, to examine the dynamic feedback from performance to capital structure using the two-step system generalized method of moment estimator. Third, to explore the determinants or variables that influence capital structure choice of firms in Nigeria and the rate of adjustment to achieve optimal debt position. Fourth, to assess the possibility of non-monotonicity effect of capital structure on firm performance and non-monotonicity effect of performance on capital structure. The second chapter discusses the theoretical framework and review the empirical literatures on capital structure and firm performance.Also, the chapter review empirical literature on firm performance and capital structure as well as on determinants of capital structure. The study find much evidence in support of the theoretical prediction of the agency cost theory of capital structure. The stuudy observed that there are limited empirical studies on the franchise value and efficiency-risk hypotheses of reverse causality from performance to capital structure.The empirical literatures on determinants of capital structure suggests that both firm specific and country factors are important variables that drive capital structure choice of firms. The thrid chapter examines the methodology of the study. The population, sampling and sampling size, estimation methods were discussed in this chapter. The fourth chapter analysis and described the data employed in the study.Specifically, the results of the dynamic relationship between capital structure and firm performance were presented in this chapter. The results indicate that capital structure has non-monotonic effect on firm performance thereby supports the agency cost theory of capital structure. The fifth chapter provides results on the reverse causality between performance and capital structure. The findings indicate that there is reverse causality between performance and capital structure. This is evidence in the statistically significant negative finding between performance and capital structure. This finding support the franchise value hypothesis. The findings of this study also reveal that non-monotonic relationship exist between performance and capital structure. The sixth chapter provides results on the determinants of capital structure of Nigerian firms. The findings indicate that both firm specific variables (return on equity, risk, profitablity, age, size, tangibility, growth opportunities, dividend, ownership) and country variables (inflation, interest rates, credit to private sector as percentage of gross domestic product, institutional quality) jointly influence capital structure choice of firms in Nigeria. The findings equally indicate that firms in Nigeria adjust to their optimal debt target relatively faster with lower cost of adjustment because of better access to private debt that public debt. Conclusions from the empirical chapters indicate that firm specific and country factors are major determinants of capital structure of firms in Nigeria and that capital structure choice of firms influence their performance. Equally, there is evidence that indicate that there is reverse causality from performance to capital structure of firms. The study therefore contend that the agency cost theory of capital structure and franchise value hypothesis are portable in the Nigerian context. Full portability of these theories in emerging market like Nigeria may require modifications to accommodate specific peculiarities of operating and business environment of Nigeria.
- PhD