Constrained Linear and Non-Linear Adaptive Equalization Techniques for MIMO-CDMA Systems
Researchers have shown that by combining multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques with CDMA then higher gains in capacity, reliability and data transmission speed can be attained. But a major drawback of MIMO-CDMA systems is multiple access interference (MAI) which can reduce the capacity and increase the bit error rate (BER), so statistical analysis of MAI becomes a very important factor in the performance analysis of these systems. In this thesis, a detailed analysis of MAI is performed for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals with random signature sequence in Raleigh fading environment and closed from expressions for the probability density function of MAI and MAI with noise are derived. Further, probability of error is derived for the maximum Likelihood receiver. These derivations are verified through simulations and are found to reinforce the theoretical results. Since the performance of MIMO suffers significantly from MAI and inter-symbol interference (ISI), equalization is needed to mitigate these effects. It is well known from the theory of constrained optimization that the learning speed of any adaptive filtering algorithm can be increased by adding a constraint to it, as in the case of the normalized least mean squared (NLMS) algorithm. Thus, in this work both linear and non-linear decision feedback (DFE) equalizers for MIMO systems with least mean square (LMS) based constrained stochastic gradient algorithm have been designed. More specifically, an LMS algorithm has been developed , which was equipped with the knowledge of number of users, spreading sequence (SS) length, additive noise variance as well as MAI with noise (new constraint) and is named MIMO-CDMA MAI with noise constrained (MNCLMS) algorithm. Convergence and tracking analysis of the proposed algorithm are carried out in the scenario of interference and noise limited systems, and simulation results are presented to compare the performance of MIMO-CDMA MNCLMS algorithm with other adaptive algorithms.
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