The effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on inflammatory markers and metabolic control in healthy individuals and type 1 diabetics using either insulin pump or multiple dose injection
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterised by an absolute insulin deficiency resulting from the chronic and progressive destruction of pancreatic β-cells by the immune system cells. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is becoming a popular technique for insulin delivery among T1D patients. Exercise is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects and metabolic control. Therefore it was of interest to study this in T1D using CSII. The objectives of this thesis were to further understanding of the effect of exercise on blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, lipids, insulin and inflammatory markers in healthy and T1D volunteers. Three studies have been investigated where the diabetic volunteers used multi daily injections (MDI) or CSII. Firstly a survey was conducted aimed to investigate the effect of exercise on T1D patients using CSII therapy. The second study examined the acute and chronic effects of resistance and cardio exercise at moderate intensity on inflammatory markers such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in healthy and T1D using MDI or CSII. Finally, a study was undertaken to find out the effects of chronic moderate intensity exercise on lipids profile and glycaemic control in healthy and T1D using MDI or CSII. The statistical analysis of the survey showed that CSII therapy for T1D had a significant reduction on A1c, insulin requirement and improvement of lipids profile compared to MDI. Moreover, majority of CSII users (63%) rarely suffered from hypoglycemia during exercise. The second study demonstrated that acute and chronic exercises have a positive impact on the inflammatory markers among CSII users e.g. in CSII users statistically significant increase in IL-6 and TNF-α levels were observed (P=0.014 and P=0.001 respectively). The last study showed that lipids profile, total daily insulin units were improved and A1c levels were significantly reduced in CSII as well as MDI groups after 6 weeks of exercise. T1D affects major organs e.g. heart, kidneys, blood vessels etc. However, good glycaemic control can reduce the risk of diabetes complications. This study suggested that CSII therapy along with exercise can maintain the BG level close to normal, as all 5 participants of the study showed an improvement in their BG levels after exercise.
- PhD