Semantically-enhanced image tagging system
In multimedia databases, data are images, audio, video, texts, etc. Research interests in these types of databases have increased in the last decade or so, especially with the advent of the Internet and Semantic Web. Fundamental research issues vary from unified data modelling, retrieval of data items and dynamic nature of updates. The thesis builds on findings in Semantic Web and retrieval techniques and explores novel tagging methods for identifying data items. Tagging systems have become popular which enable the users to add tags to Internet resources such as images, video and audio to make them more manageable. Collaborative tagging is concerned with the relationship between people and resources. Most of these resources have metadata in machine processable format and enable users to use free- text keywords (so-called tags) as search techniques. This research references some tagging systems, e.g. Flicker, delicious and myweb2.0. The limitation with such techniques includes polysemy (one word and different meaning), synonymy (different words and one meaning), different lexical forms (singular, plural, and conjugated words) and misspelling errors or alternate spellings. The work presented in this thesis introduces semantic characterization of web resources that describes the structure and organization of tagging, aiming to extend the existing Multimedia Query using similarity measures to cater for collaborative tagging. In addition, we discuss the semantic difficulties of tagging systems, suggesting improvements in their accuracies. The scope of our work is classified as follows: (i) Increase the accuracy and confidence of multimedia tagging systems. (ii) Increase the similarity measures of images by integrating varieties of measures. To address the first shortcoming, we use the WordNet based on a tagging system for social sharing and retrieval of images as a semantic lingual ontology resource. For the second shortcoming we use the similarity measures in different ways to recognise the multimedia tagging system. Fundamental to our work is the novel information model that we have constructed for our computation. This is based on the fact that an image is a rich object that can be characterised and formulated in n-dimensions, each dimension contains valuable information that will help in increasing the accuracy of the search. For example an image of a tree in a forest contains more information than an image of the same tree but in a different environment. In this thesis we characterise a data item (an image) by a primary description, followed by n-secondary descriptions. As n increases, the accuracy of the search improves. We give various techniques to analyse data and its associated query. To increase the accuracy of the tagging system we have performed different experiments on many images using similarity measures and various techniques from VoI (Value of Information). The findings have shown the linkage/integration between similarity measures and that VoI improves searches and helps/guides a tagger in choosing the most adequate of tags.
- PhD