Distributive Time Division Multiplexed Localization Technique for WLANs
This thesis presents the research work regarding the solution of a localization problem in indoor WLANs by introducing a distributive time division multiplexed localization technique based on the convex semidefinite programming. Convex optimizations have proven to give promising results but have limitations of computational complexity for a larger problem size. In the case of localization problem the size is determined depending on the number of nodes to be localized. Thus a convex localization technique could not be applied to real time tracking of mobile nodes within the WLANs that are already providing computationally intensive real time multimedia services. Here we have developed a distributive technique to circumvent this problem such that we divide a larger network into computationally manageable smaller subnets. The division of a larger network is based on the mobility levels of the nodes. There are two types of nodes in a network; mobile, and stationery. We have placed the mobile nodes into separate subnets which are tagged as mobile whereas the stationary nodes are placed into subnets tagged as stationary. The purpose of this classification of networks into subnets is to achieve a priority-based localization with a higher priority given to mobile subnets. Then the classified subnets are localized by scheduling them in a time division multiplexed way. For this purpose a time-frame is defined consisting of finite number of fixed duration time-slots such that within the slot duration a subnet could be localized. The subnets are scheduled within the frames with a 1:n ratio pattern that is within n number of frames each mobile subnet is localized n times while each stationary subnet consisting of stationary nodes is localized once. By using this priority-based scheduling we have achieved a real time tracking of mobile node positions by using the computationally intensive convex optimization technique. In addition, we present that the resultant distributive technique can be applied to a network having diverse node density that is a network with its nodes varying from very few to large numbers can be localized by increasing frame duration. This results in a scalable technique. In addition to computational complexity, another problem that arises while formulating the distance based localization as a convex optimization problem is the high-rank solution. We have also developed the solution based on virtual nodes to circumvent this problem. Virtual nodes are not real nodes but these are nodes that are only added within the network to achieve low rank realization. Finally, we developed a distributive 3D real-time localization technique that exploited the mobile user behaviour within the multi-storey indoor environments. The estimates of heights by using this technique were found to be coarse. Therefore, it can only be used to identify floors in which a node is located.
- PhD