Bursts identification in water distribution systems
The presented thesis investigates the identification of burst locations in water distribution systems (WDS) by analysis of field and simulation experimental data. This required the development of a new hybrid method of burst detection and sizing, and also a burst location identification algorithm. Generally, existing practice relies on a combination of some simple procedure and experience of the involved staff and cannot be easily automated. The practical methods are based on direct manifestation of burst on the surface or on systematically surveying suspected areas e.g. by using listening sticks, such methods are very time consuming. The proposed burst location algorithm is based on comparing data by means of statistical analysis of field data with results of water network simulation. An extended network hydraulic simulator is used to model pressure dependent leakage terms. The presence of a burst changes the flow pattern and also pressure at network nodes which may be used to estimate the burst size and its location. The influence of such random factors as demand flows and background leakage on the process of burst detection is also considered. The field data is from a generalised fixed area and variable area (FAVOR) test where inlet pressure is being stepped up and down and the following variables are measured: inlet flow, inlet pressure (head) and pressure at a number of selected sensitive nodes. The method has three stages and uses two different models, one is inlet flow model (IFM) to represent the total inlet flow and another is the extended hydraulic model to simulate different burst locations. Initially the presence of a potential burst is investigated. If this is confirmed precise values of the demand, background leakage flow and burst flow in IFM are subsequently estimated. They are used to identify the burst site at the third stage of the method. The method can be easily adapted for practical use. It requires data from experiments carried out at night between 1am and 5am and involves placing typically about 20 temporary loggers to collect the measurements during this period. It also requires the availability of a hydraulic model which normally is in the possession of a water company. The program has been implemented in the Matlab package and is easy to use. The current methodology is tuned to identify a single burst but can be generalised to identify locations of multiple bursts.
- PhD