The Synthesis, Analysis and Characterisation of Piperazine Based Drugs
This study has investigated the syntheses and initial analytical profiling of phenylpiperazine drugs. This research aims to give an insight into the clandestine routes of synthesis and chemical profiles of 1-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazine (pFPP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (mTFMPP) synthetic drugs, which are newly emerging ‘’designer’’ drugs on the illicit drug market. The presence of pFPP and mTFMPP isomers mFPP, oFPP and pTFMPP, oTFMPP respectively complicates the analysis of these substances as they exhibit similar chemical and analytical profiles to the target compounds. The phenylpiperazines (pFPP and mTFMPP) were synthesised individually using methods identified as possible routes of synthesis in clandestine laboratories. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for analysis of these substances so as to ascertain the identity of the synthetic substances and to determine the impurities present in the resulting samples. Qualitative analysis was also carried out by infra-red spectrometry (IR) and ultra violet visible spectrometry (UV-VIS). The synthesised samples were identified as pFPP and mTFMPP. Several impurities were observed in the synthetic samples which were categorized as residual reactants, isomers of pFPP and of mTFMPP and by-products of the reaction. The percentage yields of the synthesized samples, pFPP and mTFMPP were also determined. The methods of analysis have resulted in the initial chemical characterisation of phenylpiperazines synthesized from relatively simple and cheap synthetic routes. The identification of reaction routes for syntheses, the associated impurities and the development of a method of analysis will prove very useful in profiling ‘’street samples’’ of these emergent drugs of abuse.
Research in partnership with Anglia Ruskin University
Citation : Kuleya, C., Gautam, L., Hall, S., Emmett, T. and Vaughan, B. (2011) The Synthesis, Analysis and Characterisation of Piperazine Based Drugs. Analytical Research Forum, Manchester, July.
Research Institute : Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)
- Leicester School of Pharmacy