Merging Wildlife and Environmental Monitoring Approaches with Forensic Principles: Application of Unconventional and Non-Invasive Sampling in Eco-Pharmacovigilance
Pharmaceutical residues in the environment have the potential to harm wildlife. A population’s fragility or an animal’s secretive nature may preclude capture and the use of invasive/destructive sampling techniques that are typically used in a risk assessment. Conventionally favoured matrices gathered opportunistically from carcasses have a finite lifespan, thereby limiting the detection window. This multidisciplinary paper aims to promote the use of non-invasive approaches and optimize use of even the most degraded carcasses. We highlight a selection of promising alternative, unconventional and underutilized sample types that could be applied in environmental monitoring efforts and wildlife forensic investigations. With a focus on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), now under increasing scrutiny in the freshwater and terrestrial environment, we first illustrate current sampling practices and gaps in knowledge by summarizing exposure of: 1) aquatic organisms to urban effluent discharged into waterways, and, 2) scavenging species to veterinary residues in livestock and other carrion. We then consider the merits and limitations of a range of alternative environmentally robust sample options that offer a broader detection interval for NSAIDs, with emphasis on hair, wool and feathers. The viability of eyes/ocular material, bone matter, fecal matter, injection sites, ingesta/pellets and scavenging/coprophagous insects are also discussed.
Collaborative publication with Working Dogs for Conservation; Anglia Ruskin University; The State Laboratory, County Kildare, Ireland; Arcadia University; Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Andalucía, Spain; Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio de la Junta de Andalucía, Spain and Vulture Conservation Foundation (VCF), Switzerland
Citation : Richards, et al. (2014) Merging Wildlife and Environmental Monitoring Approaches with Forensic Principles: Application of Unconventional and Non-Invasive Sampling in Eco-Pharmacovigilance, Forensic Research, 5:3.
ISSN : 2157-7145
Research Institute : Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)
Peer Reviewed : Yes
- Leicester School of Pharmacy