Supporting the provision of pharmacy medication reviews to marginalised (medically underserved) groups: a before/after questionnaire study investigating the impact of a patient–professional co-produced digital educational intervention
Objectives People who are marginalised (medically underserved) experience significant health disparities and their voices are often ‘seldom heard’. Interventions to improve professional awareness and engagement with these groups are urgently needed. This study uses a co-production approach to develop an online digital educational intervention in order to improve pharmacy staffs’ intention to offer a community pharmacy medication review service to medically underserved groups. Design Before/after (3 months) self-completion online questionnaire. Setting Community pharmacies in the Nottinghamshire (England) geographical area. Participants Community pharmacy staff. Intervention Online digital educational intervention. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was ‘behaviour change intention’ using a validated 12-item survey measure. The secondary outcome measure was pharmacist self-reported recruitment of underserved groups to the medication review service. Results All pharmacies in the Nottinghamshire area (n=237) were approached in June 2017 and responses were received from 149 staff (from 122 pharmacies). At 3 months (after completing the baseline questionnaire), 96 participants (from 80 pharmacies) completed a follow-up questionnaire, of which two-thirds (n=62) reported completing the e-learning. A before/after comparison analysis found an improving trend in all the five constructs of behaviour change intention (intention, social influence, beliefs about capabilities, moral norms and beliefs about consequences), with a significant increase in mean score of participants’ ‘beliefs about capabilities’ (0.44; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.76, p=0.009). In the short-term, no significant change was detected in the number of patients being offered and the patient completing a medication review. Conclusions Although increases in the numbers of patients being offered a medication review was not detected, the intervention has the potential to significantly improve pharmacy professionals’ 'beliefs about capabilities' in the short-term. Wider organisational and policy barriers to engagement with marginalised groups may need to be addressed. Future research should focus on the interplay between digital learning and practice to better identify and understand effective practice change pathways.
Citation : Latif, A., Waring, J, Chen, L., Pollock, K., Solomon, J., Gulzar, N., Gulzar, S., Anderson, E., Choudhary, S., Abbasi, N., Wharrad, H., Anderson, C. (2019) Supporting the provision of pharmacy medication reviews to marginalised (medically underserved) groups: a before/after questionnaire study investigating the impact of a patient–professional co-produced digital educational intervention. BMJ Open, 9(9), e031548.
Research Institute : Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)
Peer Reviewed : Yes
- Leicester School of Pharmacy