Insight into Flufenamic Acid Cocrystal Dissolution in the Presence of a Polymer in Solution: from Single Crystal to Powder Dissolution
Effects of three polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP-VA), on the dissolution behavior of the cocrystals of flufenamic acid with theophylline (FFA-TP CO) and nicotinamide (FFA-NIC CO) were investigated at multiple length scales. At the molecular level, the interactions of crystal surfaces with a polymer were analyzed by observing etching pattern changes using atomic force microscopy. At the macroscopic scale, dissolution rates of particular faces of a single crystal were determined by measurement of the physical retreat velocities of the faces using optical light microscopy. In the bulk experiments, the FFA concentration in a dissolution medium in the absence or presence of a polymer was measured under both sink and nonsink conditions. It has been found that the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-TP CO are controlled by the defect sites of the crystal surface and by precipitation of the parent drug FFA as individual crystals in the bulk fluid. In contrast, the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-NIC CO are controlled by surface layer removal and by a surface precipitation mechanism, where the parent drug FFA precipitates directly onto the surface of the dissolving cocrystals. Through controlling the dissolution environment by predissolving a polymer, PVP or PVP-VA, which can interact with the crystal surface to alter its dissolution properties, improved solubility, and dissolution rates of FFA-TP CO and FFA-NIC CO have been demonstrated.
Citation:Guo, M. et al. (2017) Insight into Flufenamic Acid Cocrystal Dissolution in the Presence of a Polymer in Solution: from Single Crystal to Powder Dissolution. molecular pharmaceutics, 14 (12), pp. 4583-4596
- Leicester School of Pharmacy