Context Aware Pre-Crash System for Vehicular ad hoc Networks Using Dynamic Bayesian Model
Tragically, traffic accidents involving drivers, motorcyclists and pedestrians result in thousands of fatalities worldwide each year. For this reason, making improvements to road safety and saving people’s lives is an international priority. In recent years, this aim has been supported by Intelligent Transport Systems, offering safety systems and providing an intelligent driving environment. The development of wireless communications and mobile ad hoc networks has led to improvements in intelligent transportation systems heightening these systems’ safety. Vehicular ad hoc Networks comprise an important technology; included within intelligent transportation systems, they use dedicated short-range communications to assist vehicles to communicate with one another, or with those roadside units in range. This form of communication can reduce road accidents and provide a safer driving environment. A major challenge has been to design an ideal system to filter relevant contextual information from the surrounding environment, taking into consideration the contributory factors necessary to predict the likelihood of a crash with different levels of severity. Designing an accurate and effective pre-crash system to avoid front and back crashes or mitigate their severity is the most important goal of intelligent transportation systems, as it can save people’s lives. Furthermore, in order to improve crash prediction, context-aware systems can be used to collect and analyse contextual information regarding contributory factors. The crash likelihood in this study is considered to operate within an uncertain context, and is defined according to the dynamic interaction between the driver, the vehicle and the environment, meaning it is affected by contributory factors and develops over time. As a crash likelihood is considered to be an uncertain context and develops over time, any usable technology must overcome this uncertainty in order to accurately predict crashes. This thesis presents a context-aware pre-crash collision prediction system, which captures information from the surrounding environment, the driver and other vehicles on the road. It utilises a Dynamic Bayesian Network as a reasoning model to predict crash likelihood and severity level, whether any crash will be fatal, serious, or slight. This is achieved by combining the above mentioned information and performing probabilistic reasoning over time. The thesis introduces novel context aware on-board unit architecture for crash prediction. The architecture is divided into three phases: the physical, the thinking and the application phase; these which represent the three main subsystems of a context-aware system: sensing, reasoning and acting. In the thinking phase, a novel Dynamic Bayesian Network framework is introduced to predict crash likelihood. The framework is able to perform probabilistic reasoning to predict uncertainty, in order to accurately predict a crash. It divides crash severity levels according to the UK department for transport, into fatal, serious and slight. GeNIe version 2.0 software was used to implement and verify the Dynamic Bayesian Network model. This model has been verified using both syntactical and real data provided by the UK department for transport in order to demonstrate the prediction accuracy of the proposed model and to demonstrate the importance of including a large amount of contextual information in the prediction process. The evaluation of the proposed system delivered high-fidelity results, when predicting crashes and their severity. This was judged by inputting different sensor readings and performing several experiments. The findings of this study has helped to predict the probability of a crash at different severity levels, accounting for factors that may be involved in causing a crash, thereby representing a valuable step towards creating a safer traffic network.
- PhD